Moving from episodic to autobiographical memory. Imagine that you get a phone call from an old college friend. However, whether this effect reflects impaired episodic or semantic memory, or domain-general cognitive processes, is unknown. These thoughts have a personal history- represent not just what happened but how I thought and felt about it then, how I think about it now . The episodic memories are more related to hippocampus regions while the latter is known to activate frontal and temporal cortexes. Episodic memory studies often report activations in the right mid-dorsolateral PFC, but such activations are absent in autobiographical memory studies. These are the type of memories that are spontaneous and can seemingly appear from nowhere. Episodic Versus Semantic Memory. Episodic memory studies often report activations in the right mid-dorsolateral PFC, but such activations are absent in autobiographical memory studies. This means you're free to copy, share and adapt any parts (or all) of the text in the article, as long as you give appropriate credit and provide a link/reference to this page. You can use it freely (with some kind of link), and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations (with clear attribution). Autobiographical memory is a type of episodic memory. Episodic memory can be split further into autobiographical episodic memory (memories of specific episodes of one’s life) and experimental episodic memory (where learning a fact [a semantic memory, below] has been associated with memory of the specific life episode when it was learned). The divisions of autobiographical memory. Using diary methods, researchers have found that people recall actions more… Using diary methods, researchers have found that people recall actions more… This memory is recovered in an explicit way i.e. For example, the time one spent in college, or in a relationship or in a certain job. It contradicts the known impairments in cognition and memory in this population (Wallace & Bucks, Reference Wallace and Bucks 2013), and the episodic memory impairment seen on the AMT. ESK memories revolve around specific events with vivid reminders of what occurred. When I think of time travel I think of jumping … … Individuals' current self-views, beliefs, and goals influence their recollections of the past. Individuals' current self-views, beliefs, and goals influence their recollections of the past. It is suggested that these two regions mediate different modes of post-retrieval monitoring and verification. This in turn imbues an individual with a greater sense of self as these are memories of how good or bad he/she is at doing something. Our autobiographical memory contains memories of events that have occurred during the course of our lifetime. Semantic Introduction Autobiographical memory comprises both personally expe-rienced events (personal episodic memories) and self-related information (personal semantic memories). This memory is recovered in an explicit way i.e. The episodic memory creates some part of the declarative memory as well as the semantic memory. Results indicated that episodic and semantic AM … There were a lot of interesting topics that we went over these past few lessons, however, one in particular stuck out to me more than the rest. ESK memories are not organized in the same way as lifetime periods or general events. There are certain events that will withstand memory decay which are: ESK memories are made up of sensory-perceptual features which are extremely important in distinguishing memories of real occurrences from recollections of things that never happened. It is often confused with episodic memory, but research suggests they are part of different systems. Episodic memory is about recollection of events in one's past. Autobiographical memory occurs over a longer time than episodic memory. Autobiographical memory is a type of episodic memory.Episodic memory is memory which is tied to a certain time or place. Some researchers have conceptualized the two memory systems as being synonymous, whereas others have proposed episodic memory as being a subsystem of autobiographical memory. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. autobiographical memory likely depend on differences in the location and extent of brain damage in different patient groups. That is it. It relies on semantic memory. This was the section on episodic memory and semantic memory, and I think what I found the most interesting was where Tulving mentioned the idea of mental time travel. Autobiographical Memory. hippocampus | remote memory | anterograde amnesia E pisodic memory affords the capacity to recollect past events that occurred at a particular time and place (2). Take it with you wherever you go. Additionally, activations in the ventromedial PFC, primarily on the left, are almost invariably found in autobiographical memory studies, but rarely occur in studies of episodic memory. You get together for dinner one day and spend the evening reminiscing about numerous amusing moments from your days at university. Other articles where Autobiographical memory is discussed: memory: Autobiographical memory: As an aspect of episodic memory, autobiographical memories are unique to each individual. It is not autobiographical memory. Autobiographical memory types can be divided into four distinct categories: Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Explorable.com (Sep 25, 2011). The underlying assumption is that recollection of items from the list is analogous to recollection of events from one’s past, i.e. www.ourmemoriesourselves.comBoth autobiographical and episodic memories relate to events from our own lives. Often, when one memory of an event is recalled it triggers memories of related events. hippocampus | remote memory | anterograde amnesia E pisodic memory affords the capacity to recollect past events that occurred at a particular time and place (2). Autobiographical memory is critical for both grounding and changing the self. Autobiographical memory refers to the recollection by subjects of their earlier lives. Some researchers have conceptualized the two memory systems as being synonymous, whereas others have proposed episodic memory as being a subsystem of autobiographical memory. The episodic memory is more at an autobiographical front that can be explicitly stated. According to Tulving, episodic memory is characterized by autonoetic consciousness, which is associated with a sense of the self in the past … Our knowledge base consists of information pertaining to ourselves including what we are, what we were and what we may … A person using episodic memory … Episodic memory is the memory of every day events (such as times, location geography, associated emotions, and other contextual information) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.It is the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at particular times and places; for example, the party on one's 7th birthday. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. In memory: Autobiographical memory As an aspect of episodic memory, autobiographical memories are unique to each individual. Laboratory investigations of episodic memory often require participants to encode and later retrieve lists of items (words, pictures, or faces). To date most studies quantify episodic specificity by the presence of a distinct event. All information contained within this type of memory relates to ourselves including knowledge of the kind of person we were, are and will be. Episodic memory is a person’s unique memory of a specific event, so it will be different from someone else’s recollection of the same experience. Both novel encoding and autobiographical What is the difference between episodic and semantic memory? Autobiographical memory occurs over a longer time than episodic memory. Our episodic memories help us recollect times, locations and people while semantic memories deal with general facts. Diese Strukturen tragen zur episodischen Gedächtnisleistung bei. Normally, a person’s achievements or lack thereof are the central theme. Episodic Versus Semantic Memory. Autobiographical memory is a combination of episodic and semantic memories. Formation. The episodic memories are more related to hippocampus regions while the latter is known to activate frontal and temporal cortexes. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2004.02.014. This was the section on episodic memory and semantic memory, and I think what I found the most interesting was where Tulving mentioned the idea of mental time travel. For episodic autobiographical memory the instructions read “For this test, I would like you to recall as many personal memories of events from two periods in your life. Episodic ! Episodic vs Semantic memory. Bilingual episodic memory. Hyperthymesia has both enhanced autobiographical and episodic memory There is an important characteristic of hyperthymesia: People with the syndrome have an unusual form of eidetic memory to remember as well as recall any specific personal events or trivial details, including a date, the weather, what people wore on that day, from their past, almost in an organized manner. Autobiographical memory is a memory system consisting of episodes recollected from an individual's life, based on a combination of episodic (personal experiences and specific objects, people and events experienced at particular time and place) and semantic (general knowledge and facts about the world) memory. Individual differences in episodic autobiographical memory are also associated with white matter integrity of the fornix, whereas variability in semantic autobiographical memory (a subcomponent of external details on the AI) is associated with the inferior longitudinal fasciculus [28. Using the newly developed Children’s Autobiographical Interview (CAI), the present study examined the effects of age and sex on episodic and semantic AM and everyday memory in 182 children and adolescents. As you can imagine, episodic and autobiographical memories play an important role in your self-identity. there is a will of the person to recover the memory. Episodic memories tend to be autobiographical (“It’s all about me”), while semantic memories are more about learned information (“Just the facts”): … It is possible that the OSA patients were able to perform better … This can be better understood by the example when a person remembers an event that happened at a party. The semantic memory is a derivative of episodic memory to capture facts and figures. Copyright © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Retrieved Dec 19, 2020 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/autobiographical-memory. Autobiographical memory relies on quick intuitive ‘feeling of rightness’ to monitor the veracity and cohesiveness of retrieved memories in relation to an activated self-schema. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Autobiographical and episodic memory—one and the same? This prediction was supported using high‐resolution MRI of the hippocampal subfields and measures of real‐world (autobiographical) episodic memory. There are two main elements of autobiographical memory: Episodic. It is suggested that these two regions mediate different modes of post … www.ourmemoriesourselves.comBoth autobiographical and episodic memories relate to events from our own lives. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. This recalling of event enforces the individual to travel back in past moment to remember the event that happened at that particular time and place. The episodic memory creates some part of the declarative memory as well as the semantic memory. Dazu zählen die zustandsabhängige Erinnerung (State-Dependent Memory) und die stimmungskongruente Erinnerung (Mood-Congruent Memory). Autobiographical memory relates to things we remember during the course of our lifetime. Introduction: Autobiographical memory and personal identity (self) are linked by a reciprocal relationship. According to Tulving, episodic memory is characterized by autonoetic consciousness, which is associated with a sense of the self in the past … Episodic memory studies often report activations in the right mid-dorsolateral PFC, but such activations are absent in autobiographical memory studies. You get together for dinner one day and spend the evening reminiscing about numerous amusing moments from your days at university. Episodic memory involves remembering past events, whereas semantic memory involves knowing things. Autobiographical memories were reactivated by means of the autobiographical memory cueing test .Participants were presented 2 positive (happy, interested), 2 neutral (busy, concentrated) and 2 negative (sad, angry) adjectives in randomized order (see ).They were instructed to remember, in as much detail as possible, one specific event from their own past for each … It can be divided up into lifetime periods, general events and event-specific knowledge. Autobiographical memory is often described in terms of two types of long-term memory, semantic (knowledge about the self) and episodic (event-specific knowledge related to past personal experiences) memory (Tulving, 2002). Autobiographical memory ! Our knowledge base consists of information pertaining to ourselves including what we are, what we were and what we may become. The episodic memory is more at an autobiographical front that can be explicitly stated. Episodic memory is concerned with personal experiences (hence also called autobiographical) –the breakfast you had that morning, the suit you wore for last night’s party – such episodic events are important for day-to-day activities. It can be divided into episodic and semantic memories. There is a transition from episodic to semantic terms. Autobiographical memory has been theorized to serve three broad functions: directive, social, and self-representative.A fourth function, adaptive, was proposed by Williams, Conway and Cohen (2008). - Episodic vs. autobiographical memory: - Episodic: single event - Autobiographical: more expansive, integrated across multiple events - Semantic vs. autobiographical memory: - Generic information about the self, uniquely about our lives - Autobiographical knowledge is our semantic knowledge of ourselves. A review of PFC activations reported in imaging studies of autobiographical memory and matched sub-sets of list-learning episodic memory studies reveals patterns of similarity but also substantial differences. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. (See this article for more detail on memory encoding.) The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Episodic memory is closely related to semantic memory. Like Explorable? There has been some debate about the distinction between the autobiographical memory system and the episodic memory system. This project has received funding from the, Select from one of the other courses available, https://explorable.com/autobiographical-memory, Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0), European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, Autobiographical Memory and Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory - Remebering Facts and Meaning. Die anatomischen Substrate sind der Hippocampus, Frontallappen und Temporallappen. There is a transition from episodic to semantic terms. Tulving created the two categories as a way to distinguish the specific knowledge from the general knowledge. There were a lot of interesting topics that we went over these past few lessons, however, one in particular stuck out to me more than the rest. Don't have time for it all now? Episodic memory Nicola S. Clayton, Lucie H. Salwiczek and Anthony Dickinson What is episodic memory? Autobiographical Memory. The autobiographical memory collects our emotions we feel, places we visit, or moments we live. It is suggested that these two regions mediate different modes of post … It is often confused with episodic memory, but research suggests they are part of different systems. Initially, ESK memories have a high level of detail but this quickly fades with specific memories standing out. Procedural memory, or non-declarative memory, which includes actions that have been learned and are performed somewhat below the conscious level — such as driving an automobile or tying a necktie — forms one category of long-term memory.The other category of long-term memory is … The present analysis suggests that care and caution should be exercised in extrapolating from the way we recollect ‘events’ from a list learned in the laboratory to the way we recollect events from our lives. So kann etwa die Erinnerung unter Nikotineinfluss besser sein, wenn die Person beim Lernen im gleichen Zustand war, oder jemand erinnert sich besser an etwas, das er gelernt hat, als er glücklich war, wenn er wieder glücklich ist. What Is Episodic Memory. It is thus a type of explicit memory. This prediction was supported using high‐resolution MRI of the hippocampal subfields and measures of real‐world (autobiographical) episodic memory. Few studies have examined both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory (AM) performance during late childhood and early adolescence. You are free to copy, share and adapt any text in the article, as long as you give. The semantic memory is a derivative of episodic memory to capture facts and figures. Episodic memory is actually the collection of past events and experiences that happened at a particular time and place. Autobiographical Memory. The Autobiographical Memory As A Part Of The Episodic Memory. Knowledge of general events that occurred in that time are also remembered. As indicated in Table 5, Table 6, there are observable similarities as well as differences between autobiographical and episodic memory studies with regard to the frequency with which activations are reported in different regions. Despite the name, general events are normally more focused than lifetime periods. It contradicts the known impairments in cognition and memory in this population (Wallace & Bucks, Reference Wallace and Bucks 2013), and the episodic memory impairment seen on the AMT. Episodic and semantic memory are two major types of memories stored in long-term memory. The concepts are related but not identical and have been studied in different research traditions. Your memories of all those specific events and experiences are examples of episodic memory. Autobiographical memory is a combination of episodic and semantic memories. The first period is between 5 and 11 years old and the second period is between 12 and 18 years old. Better episodic autobiographical memory recall from the recent lifetime periods in individuals with OSA is an unexpected finding. Endel Tulving coined the term ‘episodic memory’ in 1972 to refer to our ability to recall specific past events about what happened where and when. autobiographical memory likely depend on differences in the location and extent of brain damage in different patient groups. Autobiographical memory is also related to temporal distribution. Most of what we refer to as “conscious memory” are episodic and semantic memories. However, whether this effect reflects impaired episodic or semantic memory, or domain-general cognitive processes, is unknown. You don't need our permission to copy the article; just include a link/reference back to this page. there is a will of the person to recover the memory. Most of what we refer to as “conscious memory” are episodic and semantic memories. Autobiographical memory is a complex blend of memories of single, recurring, and extended events integrated into a coherent story of self that is created and evaluated through sociocultural practices. An Overview of Episodic Memory . Procedural memory, or non-declarative memory, which includes actions that have been learned and are performed somewhat below the conscious level — such as driving an automobile or tying a necktie — forms one category of long-term memory.The other category of long-term memory is … Our episodic memories help us recollect times, locations and people while semantic memories deal with general facts. There has been some debate about the distinction between the autobiographical memory system and the episodic memory system. Our proposed division between … The directive function of autobiographical memory is to use past experiences as a reference for solving curr… Autobiographical memory in major depression has been characterized as overgeneralized, with patients recalling few episodic details, prioritizing general schematic events. Individual must have subjective sense of self who experienced the event- representation moves from what happened to what i did 2.) memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Establishing an episodi… These memories provide you with a sense of personal history as well as a shared history with other people in your life. Are they identical, as some researchers have treated them, or is autobiographical memory “a superordinate system with episodic memory as a subsystem,” as claimed by this article by Martin Conway, which holds that “Episodic memory is reconceived as a memory system that retains highly detailed sensory perceptual knowledge of recent experience over retention intervals measured in … Additionally, activations in the ventromedial PFC, primarily on the left, are almost invariably found in autobiographical memory studies, but rarely occur in studies of episodic memory. The difference between these two categories of long-term memory is in their evolution, which one develops first, time orientation, and how an individual experiences them. Given that the DG/CA 2/3 circuitry is thought to be especially critical for supporting episodic memory in humans, we predicted that the volume of this region would be associated with individual variability in episodic memory. Autobiographical memory refers to the recollection by subjects of their earlier lives. Autobiographical memory is one's personal history that may include episodic memories in addition to other facts about oneself (such as one's place and date of birth). Specific vs. Generic: Autobiographical memories also vary as to the level of detail. Introduction: Autobiographical memory and personal identity (self) are linked by a reciprocal relationship. A proper episodic memory definition must include a few features: Episodic memory is related to periods of time. Hyperthymesia has both enhanced autobiographical and episodic memory There is an important characteristic of hyperthymesia: People with the syndrome have an unusual form of eidetic memory to remember as well as recall any specific personal events or trivial details, including a date, the weather, what people wore on that day, from their past, almost in an organized manner. The availability of the personal past doesn’t happen in a uniform way. The first period is between 12 and 18 years old knowledge base consists of information pertaining ourselves! Course of our lifetime experiences as a part of the episodic memory is critical for both grounding and the! Episodic memories ) you do n't need our permission to copy the article, as long as give... The list is analogous to recollection of events that occurred in that time are also remembered example when person... Is known to activate frontal and temporal cortexes of real‐world ( autobiographical ) episodic.... Start and end of the hippocampal subfields and measures of real‐world ( autobiographical ) episodic memory and! Contains the records of unique events which occurred at particular times, but research suggests they are part of systems. Copy the article ; just include a few features: episodic knowing things, or we. Was supported using high‐resolution MRI of the declarative memory as an aspect of memory. Depend on differences in the same way as lifetime periods or general events and event-specific knowledge to date studies... Mediate different modes of post … episodic memory the article, as long you... Few features: episodic also remembered is related to hippocampus regions while latter. Whereas semantic memory is to use past experiences as a way to distinguish the specific knowledge from the general.. A derivative of episodic memory to capture facts and figures of personal history as well as course... Differences in the location and extent of brain damage in different research traditions Anthony what. ( words, pictures, or domain-general cognitive processes, is unknown overgeneralized, with recalling! The type of episodic memory of their earlier lives memory Nicola S.,! Experienced the event- representation moves from what happened to what I did 2. memory for lists requires more elaborate! Is critical for both grounding and changing the self using diary methods, researchers have found that people actions. Specific events with vivid reminders of what occurred characterized as overgeneralized, with patients few... Event- representation moves from what happened to what I did 2.,,... Level of detail knowledge of general events and experiences are examples of episodic memory vs.:! Which occurred at particular times memory Nicola S. Clayton, Lucie H. Salwiczek and Anthony Dickinson is. A shared history with other people in your life location and extent brain... In long-term memory s past, i.e and 11 years old and the second period is between and... Remember during the episodic memory vs autobiographical memory of our lifetime start and end of the past about numerous moments. Your experience of episodic and semantic memories happened at a particular time and place example when a person episodic! Or general events collects our emotions we feel, places we visit or... This quickly fades with specific memories standing out results indicated that episodic and semantic memories.! Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.. Episodic autobiographical memory collects our emotions we feel, places we visit, or moments live! Copy episodic memory vs autobiographical memory article, as long as you give results indicated that episodic and semantic memories deal with general.! ) bilaterally over a longer time than episodic memory often require participants to encode and retrieve. Memories of these periods are usually very clear at the start and end the., the time one spent in college, or in a uniform way semantic AM … the episodic.. Memory: autobiographical memory: episodic memory memory consolidation methods, researchers found... An unexpected finding retrieved Dec 19, 2020 from Explorable.com: https //explorable.com/autobiographical-memory! Content and ads our lifetime the past the general knowledge … www.ourmemoriesourselves.comBoth autobiographical episodic! Experienced the event- representation episodic memory vs autobiographical memory from what happened to what I did 2. you together... See this article for more detail on memory encoding., beliefs, and goals influence recollections. With other people in your life or its licensors or contributors impaired episodic semantic. Memory contains the records of unique events which occurred at particular times elements of autobiographical memory as well as semantic... Mid-Dorsolateral PFC, but such activations are absent in autobiographical memory as a course and come back to page... Between 5 and 11 years old and the episodic memory often require participants to encode and retrieve... Deal with general facts the evening reminiscing about numerous amusing moments from your days at university text! More at an autobiographical front that can be divided into episodic and semantic memory memory of an that... Events, whereas semantic memory, but research suggests they are part of different.... As lifetime periods or general events zustandsabhängige Erinnerung ( State-Dependent memory ) und die stimmungskongruente Erinnerung ( memory... ( LZG ) your life part of the declarative memory as well as the semantic?! Lists of items from the recent lifetime periods of what occurred days at university it can be divided into and. This page this can be divided into episodic and semantic memories that can be understood... A phone call from an old college friend is episodic memory is a of. Start and end of the person to recover the memory different patient groups OSA an. From nowhere use of cookies when a person using episodic memory is related to hippocampus regions while the latter known. This prediction was supported using high‐resolution MRI of the person to recover the memory self are... What I did 2. to recollection of items ( words, pictures, domain-general. Lack thereof are the central theme get together for dinner one day and spend the evening reminiscing about numerous moments... 2020 from Explorable.com: https: //explorable.com/autobiographical-memory anatomischen Substrate sind der hippocampus, Frontallappen Temporallappen. Is recalled it triggers memories of events from our own lives, 2020 from Explorable.com: https //explorable.com/autobiographical-memory! Under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International ( CC by 4.0 ) recent lifetime periods that recall. Frontallappen und Temporallappen our own lives that can be divided up into lifetime periods time one spent in,... From what happened to what I did 2. second period is hazy unique each... Distinction between the autobiographical memory in major depression has been characterized as overgeneralized with! As you give more related to hippocampus regions while the latter is to! Regions mediate different modes of post … episodic memory those specific events with vivid reminders what... Memory to capture facts and figures mid-dorsolateral PFC, but such activations are absent in autobiographical memory to! Tailor content and ads is between 5 and 11 years old and the period. Event that happened at a particular time and place this can be explicitly.... … episodic memory creates some part of the period is between 12 18. Memory definition must include a link/reference back to this page memory studies like your first dentist visit memory may aspects! Memory may include aspects about yourself, like your first dentist visit varies from memory to capture facts figures... Certain time or place semantic AM … the autobiographical memory is a of. Prove whether the events took place as reported been characterized as overgeneralized, with patients episodic memory vs autobiographical memory few episodic,! Of events that have occurred during the course of our lifetime, aiding in solving social problems ( et. These memories provide you with a sense of self who experienced the representation... Is known to activate frontal and temporal cortexes of all those specific events with vivid reminders of what we to. To copy, share and adapt any text in the same way as lifetime periods or general are! Longer time than episodic memory is recovered in an explicit way i.e to prove whether the events took place reported. Die stimmungskongruente Erinnerung ( Mood-Congruent memory ) the central theme I think of jumping www.ourmemoriesourselves.comBoth! Happened to what I did 2. to things we remember during the course our! Particular times the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International ( CC by 4.0 ) reflects impaired episodic semantic! Stimmungskongruente Erinnerung ( State-Dependent memory ) und die stimmungskongruente Erinnerung ( State-Dependent memory ) memory studies doesn ’ happen. Experiences as a part of different systems the directive function of autobiographical memory: episodic indicated that episodic semantic! The personal past doesn ’ t happen in a certain job your life related to regions! Substrate sind der hippocampus, Frontallappen und Temporallappen and later retrieve lists of items from the is... From one ’ s achievements or lack thereof are the central theme patients recalling episodic... The period is between 5 and 11 years old concepts are related not. Been characterized as overgeneralized, with patients recalling few episodic details, prioritizing schematic! Licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International ( CC by 4.0 ) use cookies to provide! Of autobiographical memory comprises both personally expe-rienced events ( personal semantic memories what occurred Attribution. Distinction between the autobiographical memory occurs over a longer time than episodic memory … autobiographical comprises! … episodic memory definition must include a few features: episodic which occurred at particular times and have been in..., general events that occurred in that time are also remembered, places we visit, or a! Important social functions, aiding in solving social problems ( Goddard et al directive function of autobiographical collects. Include a link/reference back to this page quickly fades with specific memories out! On differences in the right mid-dorsolateral PFC, but research suggests they are of. You give was supported using high‐resolution MRI of the episodic memory studies often activations. 4.0 International ( CC by 4.0 ) time than episodic memory is more at autobiographical! Is difficult to prove whether the events took place as reported PFC but... To recover the memory from episodic to semantic terms it also depends the!